Interstellar

I recently viewed the 2014-released motion picture titled Interstellar, and it started me to thinking about Albert Eintein's time-dilation revelation. The motion picture also insinuated some possible extreme, long-term effects of global warming to occur right here on Earth. Previously, on the "Joyous Noise" page of this website, I briefly delved into the topic of global warming. On this page, I wish to briefly delve into the topic of time dilation.

Here's a trailer for the motion picture Interstellar:

Watch (Interstellar - Trailer - Official Warner Bros. UK )


At times, the motion picture can be challenging to follow. To assist you in following along, here are two video synopses for the motion picture Interstellar:

Watch [Interstellar (2014) Explained Animation (Spoiler Alert)]


Watch (Neil deGrasse Tyson Explains the End of 'Interstellar')


When it comes Albert Einstein's theory of relativity, it represents one of those occasions in life where you momentarily have to suspend all notions of common sense. Albert Einstein's theory of relativity represents the epitome of thinking outside the box. Albert Einstein was one remarkable human being.

Time Dilation and the Twin Paradox

The word interstellar means between stars as if to travel from one star to another star. According to Albert Einstein, nothing in the Universe can travel faster than the speed of light. From the perspective Earth's mother star, the Sun, Proxima Centauri is one of the closest stars to the Sun. What occurs when humans travel between stars and galaxies at speeds approaching the speed of light? According to Albert Einstein, among other things, a strange thing called time dilation occurs when objects in motion approach the speed of light.

The following table represents a primer on the speed of light. The following table shows speed-of-light distances as miles and kilometers with three examples (i.e., Proxima Centauri, Milky Way, and Andromeda).

The Speed of Light and 3 Distance Examples
MILES VALUES
Speed of Light as Miles Per Second 186,282.397
Speed of Light as Miles Per Hour (Millions) 670,616,629
Speed of Light as Miles Per Day (Millions) 16,094,799,101
Speed of Light as Miles Per (Light) Year (Trillions) 5,874,601,671,792
Alpha Centauri (Light Years from Earth): EXAMPLE 1 4
Total Miles from Earth to Alpha Centauri (Trillions): EXAMPLE 1 23,498,406,687,168
Milky Way Galaxy (Light Years Across): EXAMPLE 2 100,000
Total Miles across Milky Way Galaxy (Quadrillions): EXAMPLE 2 587,460,167,179,200,000
Andromeda Galaxy as Light Years from Milky Way (Millions): EXAMPLE 3 2,000,000
Total Miles from Milky Way to Andromeda Galaxy (Quintillions): EXAMPLE 3 11,749,203,343,584,000,000
 
KILOMETERS VALUES
Speed of Light as Kilometers Per Second 299,792.458
Speed of Light as Kilometers Per Hour (Millions) 1,079,252,849
Speed of Light as Kilometers Per Day (Millions) 25,902,068,371
Speed of Light as Kilometers Per (Light) Year (Trillions) 9,454,254,955,488
Alpha Centauri (Light Years from Earth): EXAMPLE 1 4
Total Kilometers from Earth to Alpha Centauri (Trillions): EXAMPLE 1 37,817,019,821,952
Milky Way Galaxy (Light Years Across): EXAMPLE 2 100,000
Total Kilometers across Milky Way Galaxy (Quadrillions): EXAMPLE 2 945,425,495,548,800,000
Andromeda Galaxy as Light Years from Milky Way (Millions): EXAMPLE 3 2,000,000
Total Kilometers from Milky Way to Andromeda Galaxy (Quintillions): EXAMPLE 3 18,908,509,910,976,000,000

Three basic formulas often are used to derive distance, (rate of) speed, and time. They are shown here:

Distance, speed (rate of), and time formulas

The rounded speed of light in miles per hour can be derived as follows: Speed of light = 186,000 miles per second * 3,600 seconds in an hour = 669,600,000 miles in an hour. To determine how far light can travel in a year, simply plug the corresponding values for variables r and t into the distance formula [d (distance) = r (rate) * t (time)]. The updated formula becomes: d = 186,000 (miles per second) * 31,536,000 (seconds in a 365-day year) = 5,865,696,000,000 (trillion miles in a year that light travels). When using kilometers instead of miles, the rounded speed generally used is 300,000 kilometers miles per second.

The following table depicts various time-dilation scenarios. It indicates that, to achieve any appreciable gains from time dilation, then travel must be conducted at speeds in excess of 99% of the speed of light, say, for instance, 99.99999% of the speed of light.

Time Dilation Scenarios
Percent Speed of Light v = Speed of Spacecraft as % Speed of Light (Miles Per Second) v2 = Speed of Spacecraft Squared (Miles Per Second) tspacecraft = Time As Measured by the Clock on the Thing in Motion Such as a Spacecraft (Per Each Year on Earth) Relativistic Adjustment Factor Base Year = 1 tEarth = Actual Travel Years to Alpha Centauri Due to Percent of Speed of Light Travel: EXAMPLE 1 tspacecraft = Corresponding Age for Clock Aboard Spacecraft after Trip from Earth to Proxima Centauri: EXAMPLE 1 tEarth = Actual Travel Years across Milky Way Due to Percent of Speed of Light Travel: EXAMPLE 2 tspacecraft = Corresponding Age for Clock Aboard Spacecraft after Trip across Milky Way Galaxy: EXAMPLE 2 tEarth= Actual Travel Years to Andromeda Due to Percent of Speed of Light Travel: EXAMPLE 3 tspacecraft = Corresponding Age for Clock Aboard Spacecraft after Trip from Milky Way to Andromeda Galaxy: EXAMPLE 3
99.99999% 186,282 34,701,124,492 0.0004 2236.06803642783 1.0 4.0000004 0.0018 100,000.01 45 2,000,000.2 894
99% 184,420 34,010,578,917 0.1411 7.08881205008343 1.0 4.04 0.5700 101,010 14,249 2,020,202 284,985
98% 182,557 33,326,966,627 0.1990 5.02518907629608 1.0 4.08 0.8122 102,041 20,306 2,040,816 406,117
97% 180,694 32,650,294,564 0.2431 4.11345034894865 1.0 4.12 1.0025 103,093 25,062 2,061,856 501,247
96% 178,831 31,980,562,728 0.2800 3.57142857142857 1.0 4.17 1.1667 104,167 29,167 2,083,333 583,333
95% 176,968 31,317,771,117 0.3122 3.20256307610174 1.0 4.21 1.3147 105,263 32,868 2,105,263 657,368
94% 175,105 30,661,919,733 0.3412 2.93105190880275 1.0 4.26 1.4518 106,383 36,295 2,127,660 725,903
93% 173,243 30,013,008,576 0.3676 2.72064780895472 1.0 4.30 1.5809 107,527 39,523 2,150,538 790,451
92% 171,380 29,371,037,644 0.3919 2.55155181539915 1.0 4.35 1.7040 108,696 42,600 2,173,913 851,996
91% 169,517 28,736,006,939 0.4146 2.41191535097474 1.0 4.40 1.8225 109,890 45,561 2,197,802 911,227
90% 167,654 28,107,916,460 0.4359 2.29415733870562 1.0 4.44 1.9373 111,111 48,432 2,222,222 968,644
89% 165,791 27,486,766,207 0.4560 2.19317231653256 1.0 4.49 2.0493 112,360 51,232 2,247,191 1,024,630
88% 163,929 26,872,556,181 0.4750 2.10537980266630 1.0 4.55 2.1590 113,636 53,974 2,272,727 1,079,486
87% 162,066 26,265,286,381 0.4931 2.02818478578709 1.0 4.60 2.2669 114,943 56,673 2,298,851 1,133,452
86% 160,203 25,664,956,807 0.5103 1.95965450417405 1.0 4.65 2.3735 116,279 59,337 2,325,581 1,186,730
85% 158,340 25,071,567,460 0.5268 1.89831599150500 1.0 4.71 2.4790 117,647 61,974 2,352,941 1,239,489
84% 156,477 24,485,118,338 0.5426 1.84302445193622 1.0 4.76 2.5837 119,048 64,594 2,380,952 1,291,872
83% 154,614 23,905,609,444 0.5578 1.79287492991120 1.0 4.82 2.6880 120,482 67,200 2,409,639 1,344,008
82% 152,752 23,333,040,775 0.5724 1.74714139453653 1.0 4.88 2.7920 121,951 69,800 2,439,024 1,396,009
81% 150,889 22,767,412,333 0.5864 1.70523372042986 1.0 4.94 2.8960 123,457 72,399 2,469,136 1,447,975
80% 149,026 22,208,724,117 0.6000 1.66666666666667 1.0 5.00 3.0000 125,000 75,000 2,500,000 1,500,000
79% 147,163 21,656,976,127 0.6131 1.63103709028671 1.0 5.06 3.1043 126,582 77,608 2,531,646 1,552,169
78% 145,300 21,112,168,363 0.6258 1.59800693025148 1.0 5.13 3.2091 128,205 80,228 2,564,103 1,604,563
77% 143,437 20,574,300,826 0.6380 1.56729031107337 1.0 5.19 3.3145 129,870 82,863 2,597,403 1,657,257
76% 141,575 20,043,373,515 0.6499 1.53864363724166 1.0 5.26 3.4206 131,579 85,516 2,631,579 1,710,324
75% 139,712 19,519,386,431 0.6614 1.51185789203691 1.0 5.33 3.5277 133,333 88,192 2,666,667 1,763,834
74% 137,849 19,002,339,572 0.6726 1.48675258362513 1.0 5.41 3.6357 135,135 90,893 2,702,703 1,817,856
73% 135,986 18,492,232,940 0.6834 1.46317093768716 1.0 5.48 3.7449 136,986 93,623 2,739,726 1,872,458
72% 134,123 17,989,066,534 0.6940 1.44097604426059 1.0 5.56 3.8554 138,889 96,385 2,777,778 1,927,706
71% 132,261 17,492,840,355 0.7042 1.42004774280768 1.0 5.63 3.9673 140,845 99,183 2,816,901 1,983,667
70% 130,398 17,003,554,402 0.7141 1.40028008402801 1.0 5.71 4.0808 142,857 102,020 2,857,143 2,040,408
69% 128,535 16,521,208,675 0.7238 1.38157924635981 1.0 5.80 4.1960 144,928 104,900 2,898,551 2,097,998
68% 126,672 16,045,803,174 0.7332 1.36386181397495 1.0 5.88 4.3130 147,059 107,825 2,941,176 2,156,506
67% 124,809 15,577,337,900 0.7424 1.34705334443603 1.0 5.97 4.4320 149,254 110,800 2,985,075 2,216,003
66% 122,946 15,115,812,852 0.7513 1.33108717016251 1.0 6.06 4.5531 151,515 113,828 3,030,303 2,276,562
65% 121,084 14,661,228,030 0.7599 1.31590338991954 1.0 6.15 4.6765 153,846 116,913 3,076,923 2,338,259
64% 119,221 14,213,583,435 0.7684 1.30144801573838 1.0 6.25 4.8023 156,250 120,059 3,125,000 2,401,172
63% 117,358 13,772,879,065 0.7766 1.28767224774359 1.0 6.35 4.9308 158,730 123,269 3,174,603 2,465,381
62% 115,495 13,339,114,922 0.7846 1.27453185483645 1.0 6.45 5.0619 161,290 126,549 3,225,806 2,530,974
61% 113,632 12,912,291,006 0.7924 1.26198664345644 1.0 6.56 5.1961 163,934 129,902 3,278,689 2,598,037
60% 111,769 12,492,407,316 0.8000 1.25000000000000 1.0 6.67 5.3333 166,667 133,333 3,333,333 2,666,667
59% 109,907 12,079,463,852 0.8074 1.23853849513327 1.0 6.78 5.4739 169,492 136,848 3,389,831 2,736,960
58% 108,044 11,673,460,614 0.8146 1.22757154035059 1.0 6.90 5.6180 172,414 140,451 3,448,276 2,809,022
57% 106,181 11,274,397,602 0.8216 1.21707108882515 1.0 7.02 5.7659 175,439 144,148 3,508,772 2,882,964
56% 104,318 10,882,274,817 0.8285 1.20701137396317 1.0 7.14 5.9178 178,571 147,945 3,571,429 2,958,902
55% 102,455 10,497,092,258 0.8352 1.19736868017850 1.0 7.27 6.0739 181,818 151,848 3,636,364 3,036,962
54% 100,592 10,118,849,926 0.8417 1.18812114130439 1.0 7.41 6.2346 185,185 155,864 3,703,704 3,117,278
53% 98,730 9,747,547,819 0.8480 1.17924856279538 1.0 7.55 6.4000 188,679 160,000 3,773,585 3,199,991
52% 96,867 9,383,185,939 0.8542 1.17073226447712 1.0 7.69 6.5705 192,308 164,263 3,846,154 3,285,255
51% 95,004 9,025,764,285 0.8602 1.16255494110166 1.0 7.84 6.7465 196,078 168,662 3,921,569 3,373,233
50% 93,141 8,675,282,858 0.8660 1.15470053837925 1.0 8.00 6.9282 200,000 173,205 4,000,000 3,464,102
49% 91,278 8,331,741,657 0.8717 1.14715414250283 1.0 8.16 7.1161 204,082 177,903 4,081,633 3,558,051
48% 89,416 7,995,140,682 0.8773 1.13990188146888 1.0 8.33 7.3106 208,333 182,764 4,166,667 3,655,285
47% 87,553 7,665,479,933 0.8827 1.13293083674021 1.0 8.51 7.5121 212,766 187,801 4,255,319 3,756,027
46% 85,690 7,342,759,411 0.8879 1.12622896399914 1.0 8.70 7.7210 217,391 193,026 4,347,826 3,860,517
45% 83,827 7,026,979,115 0.8930 1.11978502191171 1.0 8.89 7.9380 222,222 198,451 4,444,444 3,969,016
44% 81,964 6,718,139,045 0.8980 1.11358850796843 1.0 9.09 8.1636 227,273 204,090 4,545,455 4,081,808
43% 80,101 6,416,239,202 0.9028 1.10762960059150 1.0 9.30 8.3984 232,558 209,960 4,651,163 4,199,204
42% 78,239 6,121,279,585 0.9075 1.10189910680315 1.0 9.52 8.6431 238,095 216,077 4,761,905 4,321,543
41% 76,376 5,833,260,194 0.9121 1.09638841484059 1.0 9.76 8.8984 243,902 222,460 4,878,049 4,449,198
40% 74,513 5,552,181,029 0.9165 1.09108945117996 1.0 10.00 9.1652 250,000 229,129 5,000,000 4,582,576
39% 72,650 5,278,042,091 0.9208 1.08599464149846 1.0 10.26 9.4443 256,410 236,106 5,128,205 4,722,127
38% 70,787 5,010,843,379 0.9250 1.08109687516103 1.0 10.53 9.7367 263,158 243,417 5,263,158 4,868,350
37% 68,924 4,750,584,893 0.9290 1.07638947286771 1.0 10.81 10.0436 270,270 251,090 5,405,405 5,021,793
36% 67,062 4,497,266,634 0.9330 1.07186615714068 1.0 11.11 10.3661 277,778 259,153 5,555,556 5,183,068
35% 65,199 4,250,888,600 0.9367 1.06752102536725 1.0 11.43 10.7057 285,714 267,643 5,714,286 5,352,855
34% 63,336 4,011,450,794 0.9404 1.06334852514778 1.0 11.76 11.0638 294,118 276,596 5,882,353 5,531,914
33% 61,473 3,778,953,213 0.9440 1.05934343172574 1.0 12.12 11.4422 303,030 286,055 6,060,606 5,721,097
32% 59,610 3,553,395,859 0.9474 1.05550082730187 1.0 12.50 11.8427 312,500 296,068 6,250,000 5,921,360
31% 57,748 3,334,778,731 0.9507 1.05181608205636 1.0 12.90 12.2676 322,581 306,689 6,451,613 6,133,784
30% 55,885 3,123,101,829 0.9539 1.04828483672192 1.0 13.33 12.7192 333,333 317,980 6,666,667 6,359,595
29% 54,022 2,918,365,153 0.9570 1.04490298656740 1.0 13.79 13.2004 344,828 330,009 6,896,552 6,600,184
28% 52,159 2,720,568,704 0.9600 1.04166666666667 1.0 14.29 13.7143 357,143 342,857 7,142,857 6,857,143
27% 50,296 2,529,712,481 0.9629 1.03857223834016 1.0 14.81 14.2646 370,370 356,615 7,407,407 7,132,299
26% 48,433 2,345,796,485 0.9656 1.03561627666867 1.0 15.38 14.8555 384,615 371,388 7,692,308 7,427,759
25% 46,571 2,168,820,715 0.9682 1.03279555898864 1.0 16.00 15.4919 400,000 387,298 8,000,000 7,745,967
24% 44,708 1,998,785,170 0.9708 1.03010705428791 1.0 16.67 16.1795 416,667 404,489 8,333,333 8,089,774
23% 42,845 1,835,689,853 0.9732 1.02754791342852 1.0 17.39 16.9251 434,783 423,126 8,695,652 8,462,527
22% 40,982 1,679,534,761 0.9755 1.02511546013091 1.0 18.18 17.7364 454,545 443,409 9,090,909 8,868,181
21% 39,119 1,530,319,896 0.9777 1.02280718266002 1.0 19.05 18.6229 476,190 465,572 9,523,810 9,311,442
20% 37,256 1,388,045,257 0.9798 1.02062072615966 1.0 20.00 19.5959 500,000 489,898 10,000,000 9,797,959
19% 35,394 1,252,710,845 0.9818 1.01855388558690 1.0 21.05 20.6691 526,316 516,728 10,526,316 10,334,569
18% 33,531 1,124,316,658 0.9837 1.01660459920281 1.0 22.22 21.8593 555,556 546,481 11,111,111 10,929,629
17% 31,668 1,002,862,698 0.9854 1.01477094257997 1.0 23.53 23.1869 588,235 579,673 11,764,706 11,593,460
16% 29,805 888,348,965 0.9871 1.01305112309138 1.0 25.00 24.6779 625,000 616,948 12,500,000 12,338,963
15% 27,942 780,775,457 0.9887 1.01144347484835 1.0 26.67 26.3650 666,667 659,124 13,333,333 13,182,480
14% 26,080 680,142,176 0.9902 1.00994645405847 1.0 28.57 28.2900 714,286 707,251 14,285,714 14,145,021
13% 24,217 586,449,121 0.9915 1.00855863477755 1.0 30.77 30.5081 769,231 762,703 15,384,615 15,254,061
12% 22,354 499,696,293 0.9928 1.00727870503173 1.0 33.33 33.0925 833,333 827,312 16,666,667 16,546,232
11% 20,491 419,883,690 0.9939 1.00610546328873 1.0 36.36 36.1430 909,091 903,574 18,181,818 18,071,483
10% 18,628 347,011,314 0.9950 1.00503781525921 1.0 40.00 39.7995 1,000,000 994,987 20,000,000 19,899,749
9% 16,765 281,079,165 0.9959 1.00407477101102 1.0 44.44 44.2641 1,111,111 1,106,602 22,222,222 22,132,039
8% 14,903 222,087,241 0.9968 1.00321544238141 1.0 50.00 49.8397 1,250,000 1,245,994 25,000,000 24,919,872
7% 13,040 170,035,544 0.9975 1.00245904067364 1.0 57.14 57.0027 1,428,571 1,425,067 28,571,429 28,501,343
6% 11,177 124,924,073 0.9982 1.00180487462608 1.0 66.67 66.5466 1,666,667 1,663,664 33,333,333 33,273,279
5% 9,314 86,752,829 0.9987 1.00125234864352 1.0 80.00 79.8999 2,000,000 1,997,498 40,000,000 39,949,969
4% 7,451 55,521,810 0.9992 1.00080096128179 1.0 100.00 99.9200 2,500,000 2,497,999 50,000,000 49,959,984
3% 5,588 31,231,018 0.9995 1.00045030397799 1.0 133.33 133.2733 3,333,333 3,331,833 66,666,667 66,636,660
2% 3,726 13,880,453 0.9998 1.00020006002001 1.0 200.00 199.9600 5,000,000 4,999,000 100,000,000 99,979,998
1% 1,863 3,470,113 0.9999 1.00005000375031 1.0 400.00 399.9800 10,000,000 9,999,500 200,000,000 199,990,000
0.023447% 44 1,908 1.0000 1.00000002748809 1.0 17,059.75 17059.7513 426,493,795 426,493,783 8,529,875,890 8,529,875,656

As for speed-of-light travel and time dilation, when the movie Interstellar begins, the viewer sees the 30-something-year-old father (Cooper) interacting with his pre-teenage daughter (Murph). Meanwhile, during the course of the movie's intervening years, 8 or so decades will have elapsed on Earth. When the movie ends, the viewer sees the same seemingly 30-something-year-old father visiting his same, but now, 90-something-year-old daughter in the hospital as she lies on her death bed. How could this have happened? Shouldn't it have been in reverse? Shouldn't the father have been older than the daughter? With the passage of 8 or so decades, how could it be for the father to have remained middle-aged while his then 10-year-old daughter has turned 90-years-old? This scenario represents Albert Einstein's classic twin paradox. The paradox occurs due to time dilation. Among other things, the motion picture Interstellar revisited and dramatized Albert Einstein's time dilation revelation and its twins-paradox implication.

According to Albert Einstein's theory of relativity, time ticks slower when objects are moving at speeds close to the speed of light (that is, 299,792.458 kilometers per second or 186,282.397 miles per second, which translates into a precise and not rounded 1,079,252,740.87472 kilometers per hour or 670,616,629.2 miles per hour). The question become this: Precisely by how much does time slow at constant-motion speeds close to the speed of light? For instance, if someone at age 50 boarded a spacecraft, blasted off from Earth, and traveled through space for 50 Earth years at a speed that was 99% of the speed of lights, how much older would that person be after 50 years had passed?

Based on the math below, the answer is that the person aboard the spacecraft would be just a little bit over 7 years older compared to everyone on Earth who would have grown 50 years older. To measure the precise effects of time dilation on an object in constant motion, the following formula is used:

Formula for time dilation

Where,

  • tspacecraft = time dilation effect on spacecraft
  • tEarth = number of elapsed years on Earth
  • v = velocity or speed of the spacecraft (miles per second at 99% the speed of light)
  • c = speed of light (186,282.397 miles per second)

Time dilation on object in constant motion for 50 years at 99% the speed of light

It should be noted that substituting the equivalent percentages for the variables v and c into the formula also would have worked for deriving the dilation value of 7 years older in the above example. For instance, 99%/100% could have been used in place of 184,419.57303/186,282.397.

To augment the above time-dilation formula, the table immediately above further illustrates the factor by which time slows when objects in constant motion approach the speed of light. The table immediately above illustrates space travel at different percentages of the speed of light. The table looks at 3 space-travel examples:

  1. From Earth to Proxima Centauri (where, depending on the speed of travel, the time of the trip can range anywhere between 0.0018 and 17,000 years aboard the spacecraft)
  2. Across the Milky Way galaxy (where, depending on the speed of travel, the time of the trip can range anywhere between 45 and 426.5 million years aboard the spacecraft)
  3. From the Milky Way galaxy to the Andromeda galaxy (where, depending on the speed of travel, the time of the trip can range anywhere between 894 and 8.5 billion years aboard the spacecraft)

(NOTE: Click the left and right navigation buttons above the table to see all columns.)

Notice the dramatic and exponential impact of time dilation in the table immediately above when speeds close to the speed of light are reached. See how the 100,000-light-year, one-way trip across the Milky Way galaxy only would take 45 years aboard the spacecraft when traveling at 99.99999% of the speed of light. The 45-year trip is almost enough time to complete a roundtrip journey across the Milky Way and back to Earth within a human lifetime. Of course, during the one-way trip at 99.99999% of the speed of light, 100,000 years would have elapsed on Earth during those 45 years aboard the spacecraft. By comparison, the same one-way trip would take 426.5 million years aboard the spacecraft to complete when traveling at 0.023447% of the speed of light.

From the standpoint of actual human space travel, this discussion about time dilation remains in the realm of science fiction. For starters, at the present point time as of 2015, the fastest spacecrafts to be launched by humans are the Helios spacecrafts. The Helios spacecrafts traveled at a speed of roughly 157,000 miles per hour, which computes to a distance of 1,375,320,000 billion miles per year (or roughly 0.023447% of the speed of light). The distance that a Helios-type spacecraft could travel in a year is computed as follows: d = 157,000 miles per hour * 24 hours * 365 days = 1,375,320,000 billion miles per year.

Proxima Centauri is one of Earth's closest stars. As was shown in the table above, given the current state of human space-faring technology, it would take a Helios-like spacecraft slightly more than 17,000 years to make the 23.5 trillion-mile trip from Earth to Proxima Centauri. To compute the amount of time that it would take for a Helios-type spacecraft to travel from Earth to Proxima Centauri, the formula is as follows: t (time) = d (distance) / r (rate), that is, time (of arrival) = 23,462,784,000,000 (trillion miles away) / 1,375,320,000 (a rate of trillion miles per year) = 17,060 (thousand years of time). The distance from Earth to Proxima is computed as follows: 4 light-years away = 4 * 5,865,696,000,000 rounded miles light travels in a year = 23,462,784,000,000 trillion total miles. Based on Albert Einstein's time-dilation revelation, the table immediately above shows that if a spacecraft had been traveling from Earth to Proxima Centauri at 90% of the speed of light, then the clock on the spaceship would indicate that 1.9373 years had elapsed whereas humans on Earth would look at their calendars and conclude that 4.44 years had elapsed.

It is estimated that it would take approximately 100,000 light years (or roughly 587,460,167,179,200,000 quadrillion miles) to travel across the Milky Way galaxy from one end to its opposite end. The distance across the Milky Way galaxy in miles is computed as follows: 100,000 light-years away = 100,000 * 5,865,696,000,000 rounded miles light travels in a year = 587,460,167,179,200,000 quadrillion total miles. Rather than the 100,000 light years that it would take to travel from across the Milky Way galaxy at the speed of light, it would take a Helios-like spacecraft roughly 426,493,783 million years to make the 587,460,167,179,200,000 quadrillion-mile trip across the Milky Way galaxy. To compute the amount of time that it would take for a Helios-type spacecraft to travel across the Milky Way galaxy, the formula is as follows: t (time) = d (distance) / r (rate), or t (time of arrival) = 587,460,167,179,200,000 (quadrillion miles away) / 1,375,320,000 (trillion miles per year) = 426,493,783 (million years of travel time). Based on Albert Einstein's time-dilation revelation, if a spacecraft had been traveling across the Milky Way galaxy at 99% of the speed of light, then the clock on the spaceship would indicate that 14,249 years had elapsed whereas humans on Earth would look at their calendars and conclude that 101,010 years had elapsed.

The closest galaxy to Earth's home galaxy, the Milky Way, is a galaxy named Andromeda. The distance from the Milky Way to Andromeda is estimated to be slightly more than 2 million light years away (or roughly 11.7 quintillion miles away). The distance from the Milky Way to Andromeda is computed as follows: 2,000,000 light-years away = 2,000,000 * 5,865,696,000,000 rounded miles light travels in a year = 11,731,392,000,000,000,000 quintillion total miles. Rather than the 2,000,000 years that it would take to travel from Earth to Andromeda at the speed of light, it would take a Helios-like spacecraft roughly 8.5 billion years to make the 11.7 quintillion-mile trip from Earth to Andromeda. To compute the amount of time that it would take for a Helios-type spacecraft to travel from Earth to Andromeda, the formula is as follows: t (time) = d (distance) / r (rate), or t (time of arrival) = 11,731,392,000,000,000,000 (quintillion miles away) / 1,375,320,000 (trillion miles per year) = 8,529,936,306 (billion years of travel time). Based on Albert Einstein's time-dilation revelation, if a spacecraft had been traveling from Earth to Andromeda at 95% of the speed of light, then the clock on the spaceship would read that 657,368 years had elapsed whereas humans on Earth would look at their calendars and conclude that 2,105,263 years had elapsed.

Not only does the current state of human technology put a damper on prospects of human exploration and colonization of deep space, say, space outside the Solar System, but also it is not clear if the human body is capable of surviving spaceflight at, say, speeds approaching 90% of the speed of light. It also is not known if a spaceship is capable of mechanically surviving flights at, say, 90% of the speed of light. Even if humans constructed a spaceship that was capable of continuously traveling at 90% of the speed of light without mechanical failure, there are uncontrollable factors to consider when exploring deep space at such high travel speeds. For instance, it is conceivable that the spacecraft could collide with a tiny piece of space debris, which would decimate the spacecraft at such high speeds. Even with speeds in excess of 99% of the speed of light, given the current human life span of less 100 years, then it would take the accommodation and training of multiple generations aboard the spacecraft for humans to successfully conduct deep-space expeditions. Again, as the table immediately above indicates, even when traveling on a spacecraft across the Milky Way galaxy at 99% of the speed of light, it would take the humans aboard the spacecraft 14,249 years to reach their destination.

Time dilation represents a fascinating and exciting thought experiment whose effects are supported by empirical evidence. However, as of 2015, time dilation does not appear to be a practical solution for human exploration and colonization of deep space. Some other proposed solutions for human to explore and colonize deep space in a reasonable timeframe include traveling through worm holes (which also was dramatized in the motion picture Interstellar) and human teleportation. The quantum scientific notion of teleportation was dramatized in another motion picture titled The Fly. In the case of the motion picture The Fly, the plot revolved around the theme of science and technology gone awry. The quantum scientific notion of teleportation also was dramatized in the television series titled Star Trek.

Watch [The Fly (1986) Trailer]


Watch (Beam Me Up Scotty - The True Story: Star Trek)



Reminiscing on the Present While Contemplating the Future—Keeping It Positive, Celebratory, and Uplifting, i.e., No Hatred

And now, as an ode to Albert Einstein, it's time to take another musical journey. I wonder what professor Einstein would think if he saw this:

Watch (Roy Ayers, Freaky Deaky)


Watch (Roy Ayers, Freaky Deaky Soul Train Line)


Watch (Missy Elliott, Get Ur Freak On)


Watch (OutKast featuring Sleepy Brown, The Way You Move)


Watch (Roy Ayers Ubiquity, Everybody Loves The Sunshine)


Watch (Will Smith, Miami)


Watch [Thomas Anders, Ibiza (Baba Baya)]


Watch (Katy Perry, Firework)


Watch (Ellie Goulding, Burn)


Watch (Michael Jackson featuring Janet Jackson, Scream)


Watch (Stevie Wonder featuring India.Arie and Sir Paul McCartney, A Time To Love)


I would like to think that professor Einstein would not recoil in horror. Instead, I would prefer to think that professor Einstein would bust a move. LOL.


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